Boring Details

and fine print

Archive for the ‘Legal research’ Category

Powerful and free legal research tool

leave a comment »

I’ve written about it here: Are lawyers idiots? It’s an introduction to Google Scholar, a very powerful and free way to access U.S. court opinions in all jurisdictions.


Written by Tom Fox

April 8, 2014 at 9:46 am

Posted in Legal, Legal research

Georgia Garnishment Statutes

with one comment

TITLE 18 | Chapter 4 | Garnishment Proceedings

Current Through the 2013 Regular Session



  • § 18-4-1.  Definitions; practice and procedure generally
  • § 18-4-2.  Discovery
  • § 18-4-3.  Amendment of affidavits, bonds, garnishee answer, or pleadings
  • § 18-4-4.  Judge to perform functions of clerk where court has no clerk
  • § 18-4-5.  Challenge to sufficiency of bond; requiring of additional security; discharge of original surety
  • § 18-4-6.  Issuance of release of garnishment
  • § 18-4-7.  Discharge of employee subject to garnishment


  • § 18-4-20.  Property subject to garnishment generally; claim amount and defendant’s social security number on summons; information to be contained on summons of garnishment upon financial institution
  • § 18-4-21.  Garnishment of salaries of officials and employees of state and its subdivisions; exemption; summons
  • § 18-4-23.  Service of summons of garnishment controlled by Civil Practice Act


  • § 18-4-40. Grounds for issuance of writ of garnishment prior to judgment
  • § 18-4-41. Application to judge for writ; contents
  • § 18-4-42. Entry of order by judge authorizing garnishment prior to judgment; issuance of summons of garnishment  pursuant to order by clerk of court generally
  • § 18-4-43. Bond required prior to issuance of summons of garnishment; amount; presentation of bond to clerk of court for approval
  • § 18-4-44. Service of order and summons of garnishment on defendant
  • § 18-4-45. Traverse of affidavit of plaintiff by defendant; show cause order; revocation of order upon failure of plaintiff to prove grounds
  • § 18-4-46. Personal earnings of defendant not subject to garnishment prior to judgment; statement of substance of of Code section to appear on summons of garnishment
  • § 18-4-47. Funds and property paid into court or subject to garnishment to be held by clerk pending judgment; exception
  • § 18-4-48. Proceedings subsequent to final judgment in action upon which garnishment summons issued generally; final judgment required


  • § 18-4-60. Right to writ of garnishment after judgment
  • § 18-4-61. Affidavit for issuance of summons of garnishment; making and approval of affidavit
  • § 18-4-62. Contents and service of summons of garnishment; requirements as to filing of answer to summons
  • § 18-4-63. Issue of additional summons of garnishment; dismissal of garnishment proceedings upon nonissuance of summons
  • § 18-4-64. Service of copy of summons of garnishment upon defendant; notice of filing and issuance of summons of summons of garnishment; time for distribution
  • § 18-4-65. Issues defendant may raise by traverse of plaintiff’s affidavit
  • § 18-4-66. Forms for postjudgment garnishment


  • § 18-4-80. Effect of release of summons of garnishment on garnishee
  • § 18-4-81. Effect of defendant’s traverse on garnishee; filing of bond by defendant; entry of judgment on bond
  • § 18-4-82. Contents of garnishee answer
  • § 18-4-83. Service of answer of garnishee on plaintiff or attorney
  • § 18-4-84. Delivery to court of property admitted to be subject to garnishment; property in safety deposit box
  • § 18-4-85. Traverse of answer of garnishee by plaintiff — Time period; discharge for failure to traverse
  • § 18-4-86. Traverse of answer of garnishee by plaintiff — Contents
  • § 18-4-87. Traverse of answer of garnishee by plaintiff — Service
  • § 18-4-88. Order of proceedings after answer of garnishee generally
  • § 18-4-89. Proceedings after answer of the garnishee if no traverse or claim filed
  • § 18-4-90. Entry of default judgment upon failure of garnishee to file garnishee answer to summons; opening of default
  • § 18-4-91. Relief of garnishee from default judgment
  • § 18-4-92. Effect of garnishee’s failure to respond properly to summons of garnishment
  • § 18-4-92.1. Relief of garnishee from liability; definitions
  • § 18-4-93. Right of defendant to become a party to garnishment proceedings; procedure
  • § 18-4-94. Procedure where defendant prevails generally; establishment of interests in money or other property in in court by parties filing claims thereto; distribution of money or other property
  • § 18-4-95. Right of claimants of property subject to garnishment to become parties; procedure
  • § 18-4-96. Procedure where money or other property in court subject to conflicting cases
  • § 18-4-97. Right of garnishee to actual reasonable expenses in making true garnishee answer of garnishment; procedure for collection; reimbursement


  • § 18-4-110. Right of plaintiff who has obtained money judgment to process of continuing garnishment; methods,  practices, and procedures for continuing garnishment generally
  • § 18-4-111. Property, money, or effects subject to continuing garnishment
  • § 18-4-112. Filing and contents of affidavit for continuing garnishment; issuance of summons; notice and service of summons
  • § 18-4-113. Contents of summons of continuing garnishment; filing and contents of garnishee answers
  • § 18-4-114. Traverse of garnishee answer by plaintiff
  • § 18-4-115. Entry of default judgment against garnishee; relief from default judgment
  • § 18-4-116. Effect of and proceedings upon filing of traverse by defendant
  • § 18-4-117. Effect of termination of employment relationship between garnishee and defendant
  • § 18-4-118. Forms for continuing garnishment


  • § 18-4-130. Continuing garnishment for family support; issuance of writ of garnishment
  • § 18-4-131. Definitions
  • § 18-4-132. Contents of affidavit for a continuing garnishment for support; attachment of certified copy of judgment; amendment of affidavit
  • § 18-4-133. Service of summons; requirements as to filing of first garnishee answer accompanied by money; application of money
  • § 18-4-134. Filing further garnishee answers and tendering money; application of money; filing of final garnishee answer by garnishee upon termination of defendant’s employment
  • § 18-4-135. Period of attachment of writ of garnishment; garnishee’s reliance upon information in affidavit of garnishment

For the full text of Georgia’s garnishment statutes, read more: Read the rest of this entry »

Written by Tom Fox

March 2, 2014 at 9:44 pm

Florida Garnishment Statutes

leave a comment »

Florida Statutes | Title VI – Civil Practice | Chapter 77 – Garnishment

Link to Florida Statutes Chapter 77

77.01 Right to writ of garnishment.—
Every person or entity who has sued to recover a debt or has recovered judgment in any court against any person or entity has a right to a writ of garnishment, in the manner hereinafter provided, to subject any debt due to defendant by a third person or any debt not evidenced by a negotiable instrument that will become due absolutely through the passage of time only to the defendant by a third person, and any tangible or intangible personal property of defendant in the possession or control of a third person. The officers, agents, and employees of any companies or corporations are third persons in regard to the companies or corporations, and as such are subject to garnishment after judgment against the companies or corporations.

77.02 Garnishment in tort actions.—
Before judgment against a defendant no writ of garnishment shall issue in any action sounding in tort.

77.03 Issuance of writ after judgment.—
After judgment has been obtained against defendant but before the writ of garnishment is issued, the plaintiff, the plaintiff’s agent or attorney, shall file a motion (which shall not be verified or negative defendant’s exemptions) stating the amount of the judgment. The motion may be filed and the writ issued either before or after the return of execution.

77.0305 Continuing writ of garnishment against salary or wages.—
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, if salary or wages are to be garnished to satisfy a judgment, the court shall issue a continuing writ of garnishment to the judgment debtor’s employer which provides for the periodic payment of a portion of the salary or wages of the judgment debtor as the salary or wages become due until the judgment is satisfied or until otherwise provided by court order. A debtor’s status as an employee of the state or its agencies or political subdivisions does not preclude a judgment creditor’s right to garnish the debtor’s wages. For the purposes of this section, the state includes the judicial branch and the legislative branch as defined in s. 216.011. The state, for itself and for its agencies and subdivisions, waives sovereign immunity for the express and limited purpose necessary to carry out this section. The court shall allow the judgment debtor’s employer to collect up to $5 against the salary or wages of the judgment debtor to reimburse the employer for administrative costs for the first deduction from the judgment debtor’s salary or wages and up to $2 for each deduction thereafter. The funds collected by the state under this section must be deposited in the Department of Financial Services Administrative Trust Fund for purposes of carrying out this section.

77.031 Issuance of writ before judgment.—
Before judgment has been obtained by the plaintiff against the defendant:
(1) A writ of garnishment shall be issued by the court or by the clerk on order of the court.
(2) To obtain issuance of the writ, the plaintiff, or the plaintiff’s agent or attorney, shall file in the court where the action is pending a verified motion or affidavit alleging by specific facts the nature of the cause of action; the amount of the debt and that the debt for which the plaintiff sues is just, due, and unpaid; that the garnishment is not sued out to injure either the defendant or the garnishee; and that the plaintiff believes that the defendant will not have in his or her possession, after execution is issued, tangible or intangible property in this state and in the county in which the action is pending on which a levy can be made sufficient to satisfy the plaintiff’s claim. The writ of garnishment shall set forth a notice to the defendant of the right to an immediate hearing for dissolution of such writ pursuant to s. 77.07. Upon issuance of the writ of garnishment, the clerk of the court shall provide by mail a copy of the writ to the defendant.
(3) Except when the plaintiff has had an attachment writ issued, no writ of garnishment before judgment shall issue until the plaintiff, or the plaintiff’s agent or attorney, gives a bond with surety to be approved by the clerk payable to the defendant in at least double the amount of the debt demanded, conditioned to pay all costs, damages, and attorney’s fees that the defendant sustains in consequence of the plaintiff’s improperly suing out the writ of garnishment. A garnishment bond is not void or voidable because of an informality in it, nor shall the obligors be discharged because of the informality, even though the garnishment is dissolved because of the informality.
(4) The motion or pleading need not negative any exemptions of the defendant.

77.04 Writ; form.—
The writ shall require the garnishee to serve an answer on the plaintiff within 20 days after service of the writ stating whether the garnishee is indebted to the defendant at the time of the answer, or was indebted at the time of service of the writ, plus up to 1 business day for the garnishee to act expeditiously on the writ, or at any time between such times; in what sum and what tangible or intangible personal property of defendant the garnishee has in his or her possession or control at the time of his or her answer, or had at the time of the service of the writ, or at any time between such times; and whether the garnishee knows of any other person indebted to defendant, or who may have any of the property of defendant in his or her possession or control. The writ shall state the amount named in plaintiff’s motion. If the garnishee is a business entity, an authorized employee or agent of the entity may execute, file, and serve the answer on behalf of the entity.

77.041 Notice to individual defendant for claim of exemption from garnishment; procedure for hearing.—
(1) Upon application for a writ of garnishment by a plaintiff, if the defendant is an individual, the clerk of the court shall attach to the writ the following “Notice to Defendant”:


The Writ of Garnishment delivered to you with this Notice means that wages, money, and other property belonging to you have been garnished to pay a court judgment against you. HOWEVER, YOU MAY BE ABLE TO KEEP OR RECOVER YOUR WAGES, MONEY, OR PROPERTY. READ THIS NOTICE CAREFULLY.

State and federal laws provide that certain wages, money, and property, even if deposited in a bank, savings and loan, or credit union, may not be taken to pay certain types of court judgments. Such wages, money, and property are exempt from garnishment. The major exemptions are listed below on the form for Claim of Exemption and Request for Hearing. This list does not include all possible exemptions. You should consult a lawyer for specific advice.


If you request a hearing, it will be held as soon as possible after your request is received by the court. The plaintiff or the plaintiff’s attorney must file any objection within 8 business days if you hand delivered to the plaintiff or the plaintiff’s attorney a copy of the form for Claim of Exemption and Request for Hearing or, alternatively, 14 business days if you mailed a copy of the form for claim and request to the plaintiff or the plaintiff’s attorney. If the plaintiff or the plaintiff’s attorney files an objection to your Claim of Exemption and Request for Hearing, the clerk will notify you and the other parties of the time and date of the hearing. You may attend the hearing with or without an attorney. If the plaintiff or the plaintiff’s attorney fails to file an objection, no hearing is required, the writ of garnishment will be dissolved and your wages, money, or property will be released.



I claim exemptions from garnishment under the following categories as checked:
1. Head of family wages. (Check either a. or b. below, if applicable.)
a. I provide more than one-half of the support for a child or other dependent and have net earnings of $750 or less per week.
b. I provide more than one-half of the support for a child or other dependent, have net earnings of more than $750 per week, but have not agreed in writing to have my wages garnished.
2. Social Security benefits.
3. Supplemental Security Income benefits.
4. Public assistance (welfare).
5. Workers’ Compensation.
6. Reemployment assistance or unemployment compensation.
7. Veterans’ benefits.
8. Retirement or profit-sharing benefits or pension money.
9. Life insurance benefits or cash surrender value of a life insurance policy or proceeds of annuity contract.
10. Disability income benefits.
11. Prepaid College Trust Fund or Medical Savings Account.
12. Other exemptions as provided by law. (explain)

I request a hearing to decide the validity of my claim. Notice of the hearing should be given to me at:


Telephone number:

I CERTIFY UNDER OATH AND PENALTY OF PERJURY that a copy of this CLAIM OF EXEMPTION AND REQUEST FOR HEARING has been furnished by (circle one)United States mail or hand delivery on   (insert date)  , to:   (insert names and addresses of Plaintiff or Plaintiff’s attorney and of Garnishee or Garnishee’s attorney to whom this document was furnished)  .

I FURTHER CERTIFY UNDER OATH AND PENALTY OF PERJURY that the statements made in this request are true to the best of my knowledge and belief.

Defendant’s signature




Sworn and subscribed to before me this    day of   (month and year)  , by   (name of person making statement)

Notary Public/Deputy Clerk

Personally Known   OR Produced Identification

Type of Identification Produced
(2) The plaintiff must mail, by first class, a copy of the writ of garnishment, a copy of the motion for writ of garnishment, and, if the defendant is an individual, the “Notice to Defendant” to the defendant’s last known address within 5 business days after the writ is issued or 3 business days after the writ is served on the garnishee, whichever is later. However, if such documents are returned as undeliverable by the post office, or if the last known address is not discoverable after diligent search, the plaintiff must mail, by first class, the documents to the defendant at the defendant’s place of employment. The plaintiff shall file in the proceeding a certificate of such service.
(3) Upon the filing by a defendant of a sworn claim of exemption and request for hearing, a hearing will be held as soon as is practicable to determine the validity of the claimed exemptions. If the plaintiff or the plaintiff’s attorney does not file a sworn written statement that answers the defendant’s claim of exemption within 8 business days after hand delivering the claim and request or, alternatively, 14 business days if the claim and request were served by mail, no hearing is required and the clerk must automatically dissolve the writ and notify the parties of the dissolution by mail.

77.055 Service of garnishee’s answer and notice of right to dissolve writ.—
Within 5 days after service of the garnishee’s answer on the plaintiff or after the time period for the garnishee’s answer has expired, the plaintiff shall serve, by mail, the following documents: a copy of the garnishee’s answer, and a notice advising the recipient that he or she must move to dissolve the writ of garnishment within 20 days after the date indicated on the certificate of service in the notice if any allegation in the plaintiff’s motion for writ of garnishment is untrue. The plaintiff shall serve these documents on the defendant at the defendant’s last known address and any other address disclosed by the garnishee’s answer and on any other person disclosed in the garnishee’s answer to have any ownership interest in the deposit, account, or property controlled by the garnishee. The plaintiff shall file in the proceeding a certificate of such service.

77.06 Writ; effect.—
(1) Service of the writ shall make garnishee liable for all debts due by him or her to defendant and for any tangible or intangible personal property of defendant in the garnishee’s possession or control at the time of the service of the writ or at any time between the service and the time of the garnishee’s answer. Service of the writ creates a lien in or upon any such debts or property at the time of service or at the time such debts or property come into the garnishee’s possession or control.
(2) The garnishee shall report in its answer and retain, subject to the provisions of s. 77.19 and subject to disposition as provided in this chapter, any deposit, account, or tangible or intangible personal property in the possession or control of such garnishee; and the answer shall state the name or names and addresses, if known to the garnishee, of the defendant and any other persons having or appearing to have an ownership interest in the involved property.
(3) In any case where a garnishee in good faith is in doubt as to whether any indebtedness or property is required by law to be included in the garnishee’s answer or retained by it, the garnishee may include and retain the same, subject to the provisions of s. 77.19 and subject to disposition as provided in this chapter, and in such case the garnishee shall not be liable for so doing to the defendant or to any other person claiming the same or any interest therein or claiming to have sustained damage on account thereof.
(4) Service of a writ on a garnishee shall render him or her liable as provided in this chapter in any fiduciary or representative capacity held by him or her if the fiduciary or representative capacity is specified in the writ.

77.061 Reply.—
When any garnishee answers and plaintiff is not satisfied with the answer, he or she shall serve a reply within 20 days thereafter denying the allegations of the answer as he or she desires. On failure of plaintiff to file a reply, the answer shall be taken as true and on proper disposition of the assets, if any are disclosed thereby, the garnishee is entitled to an order discharging him or her from further liability under the writ.

77.07 Dissolution of writ.—
(1) The defendant, by motion, may obtain the dissolution of a writ of garnishment, unless the petitioner proves the grounds upon which the writ was issued and unless, in the case of a prejudgment writ, there is a reasonable probability that the final judgment in the underlying action will be rendered in his or her favor. The court shall set down such motion for an immediate hearing. If the writ is dissolved, the action then shall proceed as if no writ had been issued.
(2) The defendant and any other person having an ownership interest in the property, as disclosed by the garnishee’s answer, shall file and serve a motion to dissolve the garnishment within 20 days after the date indicated in the certificate of service on the defendant and such other person of the plaintiff’s notice required by s. 77.055, stating that any allegation in plaintiff’s motion for writ is untrue. On such motion this issue shall be tried, and if the allegation in plaintiff’s motion which is denied is not proved to be true, the garnishment shall be dissolved. Failure of the defendant or other interested person to timely file and serve the motion to dissolve within such time limitation shall result in the striking of the motion as an unauthorized nullity by the court, and the proceedings shall be in a default posture as to the party involved.
(3) If the motion denies the debt demanded before judgment, the judge may require pleadings on motion of either party on the debt demanded to be filed in such time as he or she fixes.
(4) The issue, if any, raised by the pleadings shall be tried at the same time as the issue, if any, made by defendant’s motion to plaintiff’s motion.
(5) If the plaintiff fails to file a dismissal or motion for final judgment within 6 months after filing the writ of garnishment, the writ shall automatically be dissolved and the garnishee shall be discharged from further liability under the writ. The plaintiff has the right to extend the writ for an additional 6 months by serving the garnishee and the defendant a notice of extension and filing in the underlying proceeding a certification of such service.

77.08 Writ; jury trial.—
On demand of either party a jury summoned from the body of the county shall be impaneled to try the issues.

77.081 Default; judgment.—
(1) If the garnishee fails to answer as required, a default shall be entered against him or her.
(2) On the entry of judgment for plaintiff, a final judgment shall be entered against the garnishee for the amount of plaintiff’s claim with interest and costs. No final judgment against a garnishee shall be entered before the entry of, or in excess of, the final judgment against the original defendant with interest and costs. If the claim of the plaintiff is dismissed or judgment is entered against the plaintiff the default against garnishee shall be vacated and judgment for the garnishee’s costs entered.

77.082 No reply filed.—
If no reply to garnishee’s answer is served, garnishee may surrender any goods, chattels, or effects of defendant in garnishee’s hands or possession to the sheriff and may pay any money or debt into registry of court. In such event or if garnishee prevails in the trial of any reply and after proper disposition of any property disclosed by garnishee’s answer, the court shall discharge him or her from further liability under the writ.

77.083 Judgment.—
Judgment against the garnishee on the garnishee’s answer or after trial of a reply to the garnishee’s answer shall be entered for the amount of his or her liability as disclosed by the answer or trial. Instead of scire facias, the court may subpoena the garnishee to inquire about his or her liability to or possession of property of the defendant. No judgment in excess of the amount remaining unpaid on the final judgment against the defendant or in excess of the amount of the liability of the garnishee to the defendant, whichever is less, shall be entered against the garnishee.

77.13 Execution on garnishee’s refusal to surrender property.—
If garnishee will not surrender the personal property belonging to defendant, provided he or she has the power to do so, and which garnishee has admitted is in his or her possession, the court may order execution issued against garnishee for the unpaid amount of plaintiff’s judgment against defendant. The officer shall sell garnishee’s property as under other executions. Garnishee may release his or her property from the levy and sale by surrendering the property of defendant to the officer levying the execution at the time appointed for the sale of garnishee’s property so levied on, or at any time before the day of the sale and by paying the costs of the proceedings to sell up to the time of the surrender.

77.14 Disposition of property surrendered by garnishee.—
When any garnishee has any of the personal property of defendant in his or her possession or control and surrenders it, the sheriff shall receive the property and sell it under the execution against defendant.

77.15 Proceedings against third persons named in answer.—
If the answer of garnishee shows that there is any of defendant’s personal property in the possession or control of any person who has not been garnisheed, on motion of plaintiff a writ of garnishment shall issue against the person having personal property of the defendant and the person shall answer and be liable as other garnishees.

77.16 Claims by third persons to garnisheed property.—
(1) If any person other than defendant claims that the debt due by a garnishee is due to that person and not to defendant, or that the property in the hands or possession of any garnishee is that person’s property and shall make an affidavit to the effect, the court shall impanel a jury to determine the right of property between the claimant and plaintiff unless a jury is waived.
(2) If the verdict is against the claimant, plaintiff shall recover costs. If the verdict is in favor of the claimant, the claimant shall recover costs against plaintiff.
(3) If the claim is interposed after a levy on property, the officer making the levy shall return the execution with the officer’s levy thereon and the affidavit of the claimant to the court from which execution issued, and the proceedings shall be as in other cases of claims made to property taken on execution.

77.17 Compensation to garnishee.—
The garnishee shall be allowed the pay of a witness for the garnishee’s attendance out of the debt owed to defendant or the property in the garnishee’s possession. If there is no debt or property in the garnishee’s possession, the allowance shall be against plaintiff.

7.19 Amount retained by garnishee.—
No garnishee who is indebted to or has in his or her possession the money of a person whose money or credits may be garnisheed shall retain out of the money more than double the amount which the writ of garnishment specifies as the amount plaintiff expects to recover or more than double the amount of the judgment plaintiff has recovered.

77.22 Before judgment; effect of judgment for defendant.—
(1) If the judgment is for defendant in the main action, plaintiff shall pay all costs which have accrued in consequence of suing out a writ of garnishment before judgment and the money or property brought into the registry of the court or custody of the officer thereby inures to the benefit of and shall be controlled by defendant as completely as though it had been rendered in defendant’s favor.
(2) If plaintiff dismisses his or her action or has a judgment against him or her on the trial, the judgment against garnishee shall become a nullity and garnishee shall have execution for garnishee’s costs against plaintiff.

77.24 Before judgment; discharge.—
At any time before the entry of judgment, a defendant whose property has been garnisheed may secure its release by giving a bond with surety to be approved by the clerk in at least double the amount claimed in the complaint with interest and costs, or if the value of the property garnisheed is less than this amount, then in double the value, conditioned to pay any judgment recovered against the defendant in the action with interest and costs, or so much thereof as shall equal the value. On the approval of the bond the court shall discharge the garnishment and release the property. The order shall become effective on its filing with the bond. If garnishee admits a debt to or possession of property of defendant in excess of a sum sufficient to satisfy plaintiff’s claim, on motion of defendant and notice to plaintiff, the court shall release garnishee from responsibility to plaintiff for any debt to or property of defendant except in a sum deemed by the court sufficient to satisfy plaintiff’s claim with interest and costs.

77.27 No appeal until fees are paid.—
If the writ is dismissed or plaintiff fails to sustain his or her claim, no appeal from the judgment shall be permitted until the attorney’s fee provided in s. 77.28 has been paid into court.

77.28 Garnishment; attorney’s fees, costs, expenses; deposit required.—
Before issuance of any writ of garnishment, the party applying for it shall deposit $100 in the registry of the court which shall be paid to the garnishee on the garnishee’s demand at any time after the service of the writ for the payment or part payment of his or her attorney’s fee which the garnishee expends or agrees to expend in obtaining representation in response to the writ. At the time of deposit, the clerk shall collect the statutory fee provided by s. 28.24(10) in addition to the $100 deposited into the registry of the court. On rendering final judgment, the court shall determine the garnishee’s costs and expenses, including a reasonable attorney’s fee, and in the event of a judgment in favor of the plaintiff, the amount shall be subject to offset by the garnishee against the defendant whose property or debt owing is being garnished. In addition, the court shall tax the garnishee’s costs and expenses as costs. Plaintiff may recover in this manner the sum advanced by plaintiff and paid into registry of court, and if the amount allowed by the court is greater than the amount of the deposit, together with any offset, judgment for the garnishee shall be entered against the party against whom the costs are taxed for the deficiency.

Written by Tom Fox

March 2, 2014 at 12:36 pm

Tennessee Garnishment – Law and Procedure

leave a comment »

It is generally the case that a state’s legislative enactments, or statutes, establish the substantive rights and rules of judicial garnishment, but court rules set forth the procedures of garnishment. This is how Tennessee does it. To more fully understand the Tennessee statutory law of garnishment, found here, it’s necessary to consult the Tennessee Rules of Civil Procedure (TRCP) , and particularly TRCP Rule 69.05:

(1) Garnishee’s Duty Generally. A writ of garnishment served on a garnishee holding property of the judgment debtor requires the garnishee to answer the writ and make an accounting to the court. Property includes a judgment debtor’s realty, personalty, money, wages, corporate stock, choses in action (whether due or not), and court judgments.

(2) Service of Writ of Garnishment. The sheriff shall serve the garnishee with three copies of the writ of garnishment and one copy of the notice to judgment debtor.

(3) Garnishee’s Duty Upon Service. The garnishee by the next business day after service shall ascertain whether the garnishee holds property of the debtor. If so, the garnishee shall mail one copy of the writ of garnishment with the notice to the last known address of the judgment debtor. Where the garnishee is a financial institution, the balance in the judgment debtor’s accounts on the night of the service date is the amount subject to that garnishment writ.

Within ten days of service, the garnishee shall file a written answer with the court accounting for any property of the judgment debtor held by the garnishee.

Within thirty days of service, the garnishee shall file with the court any money or wages (minus statutory exemptions) otherwise payable to the judgment debtor. If the garnishee holds property other than money or wages, a judgment may be entered for that property and a writ of execution may issue against the garnishee.

(4) Failure of Garnishee to Respond. If the garnishee fails to timely answer or pay money into court, a conditional judgment may be entered against the garnishee and an order served requiring the garnishee to show cause why the judgment should not be made final. If the garnishee does not show sufficient cause within ten days of service of the order, the conditional judgment shall be made final and a writ of execution may issue against the garnishee for the entire judgment owed to the judgment creditor, plus costs.

It is also a good idea to check local court rules. A collection of Tennessee’s Local Rules of Practice can be found on, here. Also, looking at official Tennessee court forms can offer insight into how things work.

If you want to know how a Tennessee  garnishment really works in actual practice, there is no adequate substitute for an experienced Tennessee lawyer.

Written by Tom Fox

March 2, 2014 at 7:00 am

Michigan Garnishment – Periodic Payments

leave a comment »

Legal research is a game of back and forth searching here and there. For example, MCL §600.4012(1) provides, in part, ” . . . . a writ of garnishment of periodic payments remains in effect for the period prescribed by the Michigan court rules.”

Michigan Garnishment LawThis, of course, requires looking to the Michigan Court Rules (MCR), which can be found here.

Searching  in Chapter Three of the MCR, relating to special proceedings, we find Rule 3.101, Garnishment After Judgment, in part (A)(4) “periodic payments” are defined to include,

” . . . . wages, salary, commissions, bonuses, and other income paid to the defendant during the period of the writ; land contract payments; rent; and other periodic debt or contract payments. Interest payments and other payments listed in MCL 600.4012(4)(a)-(d) are not periodic payments.”

(You are welcome to look up MCL 600.4012(4)(a)-(d) yourself to learn what else in not a periodic payment.)

MCR 3.101(B)(1)(a) goes on to say, basically,  that a garnishment of periodic payments (like a wage garnishment) continues until the debt is paid in full or 182 days have passed, whichever happens first.

There you have it. Mystery solved. Maybe. Just when you think you understand what’s going on, there is always a weird little twist or exception that pops up. Best practice requires reading all the Michigan appellate court opinions relating to this issue. Very frequently one can read a statute or a court rule and think it is understood, only later to discover the higher courts don’t see it that way at all.


A Guide to Periodic Payment Garnishment – Michigan Legal Aid

A Guide to Garnishment of Periodic Payments – Michigan Courts (PDF)

Written by Tom Fox

March 1, 2014 at 9:52 am